Excluding Annuitist Testimony With Rftm Law

Submitted by: Max Buddenbrock

Daniel B. Pleasant, CLA, CAS

Rouda Feder Tietjen & McGuinn


The parents of a baby boy who was brain damaged at birth retained you to be their son s lawyer. It s been four years of long hours, hard work, and sleepless nights. Finally, after overcoming the multitude of obstacles facing a medical malpractice plaintiff, the day of reckoning is near. Your life care planner has evaluated the financial needs to care for the child for the rest of his life: $85 million. Your economist has reduced that figure to present cash value: $17 million. On the eve of trial, expert disclosures are exchanged. In reviewing the defendant doctor s disclosure, you see that she has disclosed an annuitist who will testify concerning the cost of an annuity to fund the plaintiff s lifetime care. A few calls to colleagues and a review of this expert s prior testimony lead you to believe that the annuist will opine that an annuity can be purchased for $4 million to fund the life care plan. Suddenly, the potential value of your case has suffered a fourfold decline. Now what do you do?

Annuitists are often disclosed as expert witnesses by defendants in personal injury cases. These experts, who are often no more than salespeople for a particular insurance company, attempt to offer testimony concerning the cost of an annuity to provide injured plaintiffs with an income stream to compensate them for lost earnings or support or to provide a source of income to fund future medical care. The admissibility of this type of expert testimony has not been directly ruled on by California courts1, but it would appear unlikely that the appellate courts would find such testimony admissible for the reasons discussed below. This article reviews cases, from California as well as other jurisdictions, which have addressed the issue, and suggests a strategy for crafting a motion in limine to preclude the expert testimony of annuitists.

Attack Annuitist Testimony as Irrelevant to the Issue Before the Trier of Fact


All future damages must be reduced to present cash value by the trier of fact.2 The present value of a gross award of future damages is that sum of money prudently invested at the time of judgment which will return, over the period the future damages are incurred, the gross amount of the award. 3 One potential argument for the exclusion of annuitist testimony is that the cost of an annuity is not relevant to a determination of the operative issue?the present cash value of the gross amount of future damages.

The only California case that even touches on this subject is Emery v. Southern Cal. Gas Co. (1946) 72 Cal.App.2d 821, 826. In Emery, the trial court had excluded plaintiff s proffer of an actuary to present annuity tables in evidence as indicia of the present value of the heirs future loss of support in a wrongful death case. The Court of Appeal reversed, stating that the tables should have been admitted subject to an instruction that such evidence was not conclusive as to the amount to be awarded as damages, but is only one of several elements to be considered in determining the amount to be awarded.

Plaintiff s counsel should point out Emery involves annuity tables, which are admissible as some evidence of present cash value, but says nothing concerning the admissibility of an annuitist s testimony as to the cost of an annuity to fund a particular plaintiff s future damages. Later California decisions which discuss annuity evidence in other contexts reinforce this distinction.

These cases suggest that the presentation of annuity evidence would serve no purpose other than to confuse the jury concerning its role in personal injury cases. The jury is to determine the amount of money that if paid immediately to plaintiff would compensate him for his future losses. The California Supreme Court has stated in connection with future noneconomic damages:

To avoid confusion regarding the jury s task in future cases, we conclude that when future noneconomic damages are sought, the jury should be instructed expressly that they are to assume that an award of future damages is a present value sum, i.e., they are to determine the amount in current dollars paid at the time of judgment that will compensate a plaintiff for future pain and suffering.4

Similarly, future economic damages are reduced to present cash value by the jury. (CACI No. 3904.) The Comment to former BAJI No. 16.01 is also instructive:

[T]he Salgado court concluded that when an award for future economic damages is made by the jury is a present value sum, the plaintiff is entitled (if the payments are made over time) to a schedule based upon the present value determined by the jury. In other words, even if defendant can obtain an annuity that over time matches the total economic damages determined by the jury, at a lesser cost, the plaintiff is entitled to the benefit of the jury s determination of the present value, and what that amount will produce as an annuity.5

Thus, the California Supreme Court has recognized that present cash value, and the cost to fund an award, are two separate and distinct concepts. California juries are only required to make findings with regard to the former.

Language in some California cases which suggests that the cost of an annuity is evidence of the total value of periodic payments is inapposite. Those case are referencing separate determinations concerning certain Civil Code provisions which are made by the trial court only after the jury has made a present cash value determination.6 Further, California courts have repeatedly endorsed the investment approach for the jury s determination of present cash value.7

Holt v. Regents of the Univ. of California (1999) 73 Cal.App.4th 871 is instructive. In Holt, the First District Court of Appeal specifically warned of the danger of confusing the cost of an annuity to fund payment of a judgment with the underlying present value of the judgment itself:

In their concern over the use of an annuity, the parties tend to confuse two separate concepts:

(1) the manner in which the defendant complies with a judgment for periodic payments, and

(2) the present value of the gross award. As a rule, the manner in which the defendant complies with a judgment ordering periodic payments of economic damages in a MICRA case is the defendant s decision, regardless of any finding of present value. For example, the defendant can fund the judgment itself simply by writing a check to the plaintiff each payment period, or it can purchase an annuity to fund the stream of payments ordered by the court.

Of course, both these alternatives leave the defendant liable for the balance of the judgment until it is fully satisfied. Assuming the plaintiff has not exercised his or her statutory right to periodic payments, the defendant can also pay the present cash value of the gross award in a lump sum and obtain a satisfaction of judgment…

Read the rest at http://rftmlaw.com/articles/?article=excluding-annuitist-testimony

About the Author: At RFTM Law, we know what it takes to win!We understand the challenges individuals and families face when they seek recovery for their losses. Insurance companies stall. Big corporations employ big law firms to crush individuals… visit


for more!



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The New Procedure For Hair Prosthesis Uses A Material That Looks Like Human Skin With Hair

Whalebone corsets are not the only thing we will ever know about self improvement. About 3 decades ago, these contemporary alternatives we have right now would have been unthinkable and not at all affordable. Securing a good hair, whiter teeth, better eyes, cuter smile or the right sized breasts is possible nowadays.

Next are some, but not all, of the methods designed to permanently enhance personal appearance as well as the reminders from a Cedar Rapids psychologist that these things should not be overdone. A particular dentist’s dental practice have witness the dramatic increase in the number of patients who now whiten their teeth. Unnaturally white teeth seem the in fashion among people today. They dream of having exceedingly white teeth. He has even joined the league of people who bleach their teeth, perhaps an effort to keep up with his patients. They have a kit to use at home for a week aside from the two to three consultations. They pay $285 for this and the taste is satisfactorily pleasant. Patients who have their teeth bleached only numbered 15 in 1994, a total of 22 arches, either uppers or lowers. He has been doing teeth cleaning for years and now he says 10 percent of his clients now bleach their teeth.

Insurance generally won’t pay for bleaching, he says. Reconstruction of people’s smiles is one rapidly growing aspect of dentistry. The entire aspect of a person’s smile can be drastically altered, he says. Smile repairs cost $2,000 to $8,000 if they use porcelain veneers and they normally cannot be charged to insurance.


Culture is the primary contributing factor for heightened consumer interest and another portion is because of the improved affordability and availability. People have been grabbing any opportunity they find to improve their appearance these days, he said. He says that most of the clients no longer pick the traditional silver dental fillings and instead pick the more contemporary white bonded filling agents.

A hairstylist says that as she is out with her husband, she will suddenly see a guy waving at her all of a sudden, which she will later discover to be one of her clients. It should not be surprised that she has a male client because ninety percent of the people who visit her non surgical prosthetic hair replacement are males. Most of her customers are between the ages of 25 to 40 years old and her main focus is male pattern baldness.

What’s surprising is the change in the look of the new replacement hair. An unpleasant wig on top of a guy’s bald head is no longer tolerable these days. A prosthesis that look like human skin with hair is utilized in this technique and it is affixed either to the client’s scalp or his natural hair. Right before starting, the stylist first interviews her clients like the person’s activity level to make the outcome more fitting. The cost of the process ranges from $1,000 to $1,400 and it needs to be refreshed every year.

Article Source: sooperarticles.com/health-fitness-articles/dental-care-articles/new-procedure-hair-prosthesis-uses-material-looks-like-human-skin-hair-204701.html

About Author:

This site teaches you about cosmetic dentistry sydney.Visit this site for further information on cosmetic dentistry sydney.  Author: Felipa Marlo

Dentist In Mesa Az Explain Steps To Get A Healthier Smile

Submitted by: Fabulous Fabuloussmilesaz

Dr. Kevin Choi has an expert team who provides dental care services in Mesa Arizona and surrounding the area.

There are so many steps to get a healthy smile and white teeth to increase confidence while speaking with the professionals. Fabulous smile attract and impress to everyone. Take a few moments to make sure your smile is healthy or you want to be it. These days with the surge of modern dentist treatments and attain the big one appearance or self confidence you want is fairly easy.

If you have ambition and ready to get a better smile then you must note these steps that will be really helpful for great smiles and overall heath. You can do aside from brushing daily.


1 Eat Healthy: So many things stain on your teeth such as drinking coffee and sodas, eating sugared foods and mainly smoking. Over time, constant use of such foods will very harmful for your teeth. Even most of the people use straws but do not help in preventing damage to the teeth. So I want to recommend to everyone should be avoided such kind of unhealthy foods and make a good habit to keep your teeth white.

2 Keep Your Body Healthy: Pay more attention towards your health because healthy people can fight with the diseases, especially mouth diseases. In this era normally people doing soft drinks and liquids with high amount of acids, that are very harmful for the teeth, if your mouth is able to generate enough amount of saliva you can easily stop teeth damage. A weak body though will not be able to do such function. But if you cannot avoid drinking sodas and sports drink, chew a sugar-free gum to get your salivary glands going.

3 Brush Your Tongue: Using for proper brush is very compulsory because it keeps safe your teeth from various kinds of diseases. Whether you brush your teeth and its crown each behind the meal, always remember to brush your tongue as well. Actually larger amount of the bacteria in the mouth but most bacteria in your tongue, proper brushing remove a good amount of bacteria and keep your breath fresh all day. If you are using a special tongue cleaner to brush your tongue that really helpful to keep it clean.

4 Visit Specialist Dentist Regularly: I recommend to you that you must visit an expert dentist any time for checkup your teeth and ask for advice on keeping your teeth pearly white. In the present scenario so many advancements in dental technology that takes just a moment to make your teeth brighter and whiter. Always keep in mind though that not all teeth whitening procedures are applicable to you. So, make proper talk to your dentist to know which treatment works for you.

Dr. Kevin Choi has long term experience in the newest cosmetic dentistry performance and has assisted of the hundreds of the patients achieve the smile of their dreams. We are satisfied to offer a wide range of safe, aesthetic, completely natural looking solutions to discolored, misshapen or missing teeth. We take great care in creating a smile that will suit you and will last a lifetime For more detail visit Mesa Dentist.

About the Author: Always visit specialist Dentist In Mesa AZ that provide exceptional Mesa Dental Care in a comfortable and friendly environment for more detail check out




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Can Electronic Muscle Stimulation Help Prevent Injuries?

By Adriana J Noton

Electronic muscle stimulation (EMS) or electro myostimulation is a technique in which externally generated impulses are applied to a muscle site through an electrode, causing the muscle to contract. This process has several uses including rehabilitation, body building, weight loss and training of athletes. In this article, we discuss, Can electronic muscle stimulation help prevent injuries?

The impulses used in electronic muscle stimulation work in the similar manner in which the nerve impulses coming from central nervous system work(brain and spinal cord). The central nervous system coordinates the healing processes of the body and this is the reason why EMS can be used to heal and prevent injuries.

Sports and Every day injuries are mainly musculoskeletal in nature. The cause of such injuries is lack of strength and flexibility of the muscles and hence a limited range of motion. In fact the FDA approves the use of EMS in tackling the above.


EMS has been used by several communist countries in injury prevention training of the athletes since 1950s. It entered the western world in 1973, when Dr. Kots presented a paper on its potential in university of Montreal. The celebrated Olympic sprint coach, Charlie Francis also included it in his athletes regimes. It has been found that EMS can increase the strength by 40% in only three weeks.

This no boundaries training system works like magic.EMS targets the body muscles directly, forcing them to push beyond the energy conservation system of the body. Since this limit is crossed- an infinite amount of muscle fiber can be activated. This enables the athlete to attain a training effect which can not be replicated by any other training methods or their combination.

Apart from prevention of injury, EMS can also be used in preventing the atrophy (degeneration) muscles when they are denerved . However, the most common use that the EMS is put to is toning and building body.

It increases the muscle density and not the size hence making it what you would call rock hard . It is also prescribed to cure post operation muscle spasms. It has also been used as a substitute to prevent and cure central nervous system impairment.

However, EMS has several drawbacks. It works for only the larger muscle groups and not for the smaller ones (like the calves, biceps and triceps). Its use in injury prevention is limited to only a few areas. The FDA inhibits its use on many body parts like the chest and the brain. Further, the use of EMS is affected by the level of contraction of the body muscles. Hence it cannot be deployed during particular types of injuries, menstruation and pregnancy. Many cases of burns, skin irritations and other skin diseases have been reported. Also continued passing of current through the tissues can conflict with the physiology of the cells. Advice of a medical professional must be taken before using EMS in any form and for any purpose. Can electronic muscle stimulation help prevent injuries? The conclusive answer is yes but precautions must be taken.

About the Author:


is a highly effective way to aid the healing of ligaments and tendons. The method was first developed in Russia, however

Russian stim

is more powerful due to voltage differences.



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Discover How A Stockbridge Ga Chiropractic Office Helps Peripheral Neuropathy}

Submitted by: Princess Cruz

Approximately 20 million people in the US have some type of peripheral neuropathy, which is a condition resulting from damage to the peripheral nervous system, the network that carries data between the spinal cord and brain (also known as the central nervous system) and all other parts of your body.

Symptoms can be tingling or numbness, muscle weakness, or paresthesia, which is a pricking sensation. Damaged nerves can cause sweating, sexual dysfunction, digestion problems, and urination issues.

One of the commonest forms of peripheral neuropathy is diabetic neuropathy, which can cause nerve damage in an ascending pattern. Symmetrical numbness and pain can be felt first in both feet, and then will gradually travel up both legs. The last nerve fibers to be affected are arms, hands, and fingers.

Other common causes of peripheral neuropathy are genetic abnormalities, anemia, impaired kidney or liver function, nerve compression due to stenosis or disc protrusion, thyroid imbalance, chemotherapy, or the use of statin drugs.


What can a Stockbridge Georgia Chiropractic office do to help your peripheral neuropathy?

Chiropractic doctors first will identify your pain’s cause. Early chiropractic care may reduce the severity of sensory and motor nerve damage, and at the same time give patients an option to try a drug-free, non-surgical approach to their disease.

Chiropractic care combined with physical rehabilitation and massage therapy can help address postural misalignment, muscle tone imbalance, and abnormal movement patterns which often accompany compression syndromes or nerve entrapment

A Stockbridge Georgia Chiropractic doctor has a treatment goal of creating an environment where nerves can regenerate. Nerves have to be used to remain functioning well. Therapies that have been found useful for neuropathy include infrared therapy, whole body vibration therapy, high dose laser therapy, functional neurologic treatment, and nutritional supplementation

Cold laser therapy provides energy to your body without using tissue-damaging heat. Your cell mitochondria absorbs the infrared light, and this accelerates tissue and damaged nerve healing

Whole body vibration therapy encourages increased lymph fluid and blood circulation by rapid contraction of muscles. It encourages increased nerve activity through skin receptors called Pacinian and Meissners corpuscles. Vibration has been demonstrated to increase osteoblast cell activity, which in turn increases bone mineral density

A Stockbridge Georgia Chiropractic doctor can use Infrared Light Therapy to increase circulation of oxygen and blood to nerves, which helps to reduce inflammation and also increase recovery rate for damaged nerves

Stenosis or herniation of the disc can cause pressure on the nerves or spinal cord, causing nerve compression which leads to peripheral neuropathy. A chiropractor will perform non-surgical spinal decompression by using a machine which gently stretches the spine, causing a vacuum to form inside the disc which reduces compression on the nerves

Nutritional therapy has the goal of normalizing your body chemistry through diet changes such as eliminating any food you’re sensitive to, adding healthier food to your diet, and employing nutritional supplements

A Stockbridge Georgia Chiropractic office can provide patients with instructions for home care therapies. This includes thermal contrast therapy, myofascial mobilization, nerve stimulation, and sensory motor coordination

About the Author: When you are looking for the facts regarding

Stockbridge Georgia chiropractic

, come to our web pages online today. More details are available at http://www.thepaulkclinic.com now.



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Remedies And Divya Dant Manjan Tooth Powder For Teeth Whitening

Remedies and Divya Dant Manjan Tooth Powder for Teeth Whitening


adrinna smith

Remedies and Divya Dant Manjan Tooth Powder for Teeth Whitening

A great white smile is what everyone wants. Yes we see Celebes have it but it s a little more then that. For better or worse how our teeth look helps to define us. When you meet someone for the first time, having great looking white teeth does make a big difference. A great part to having pearly whites is the fact that there is no recovery time besides rinsing out your mouth. Getting a good tooth whitening kit can help make all the difference.

A toothache is any soreness, discomfort or pain within or around a tooth, signifying irritation, and swelling, reddening and possible infection with a possibility of abscess. When tooth decay penetrates the pulp chamber or reaches in its close nearness that contains the nerve endings and tiny blood vessels, a toothache starts emerging.

There are different causal factors that contribute to an aching tooth. But more often than not, it is often caused by a decaying tooth as a result of inadequate dental hygiene. Failure to brush the teeth after every meal will cause some food particles to be left in-between teeth, which leads to tooth decay. Sometimes brushing the teeth is not enough; you should also develop the habit of using dental floss to clean the areas between teeth. This is to be sure that no food particle will remain, which may decay.

Toothache generally means pain around the teeth or jaws. The severity of a toothache can vary from chronic and gentle to sharp and unbearable. The pain may be aggravated by chewing or by cold or heat. The toothache gets worse over time if left untreated as the inner pulp can become infected. The second most common cause of toothache is gum disease. Toothache or tooth pain is caused when the nerve root of the tooth is irritated.


Remedies for Teeth Whitening:

Here some remedies for teeth whitening and Divya Dant Manjan Tooth Powder benefits:

Divya Dant Manjan Tooth Powder:

# Helps in Strengthens the gums, as a result of which discharge of pus mixed with blood gets stopped;

# Takes away food-particles from teeth;

# Helps in removing foul smell of the mouth,

# Makes salivary gland fit for doing its work properly.

Herbal remedies for teeth whitening:

Strawberry and Baking Soda: Take one strawberry and half tbsp of baking soda. Crush the strawberry and mix it with the baking soda. Spread this mixture evenly on the teeth for about 5 minutes. Now brush your teeth thoroughly, rinse and floss to remove the mixture of strawberry and soda. You can do this procedure once a week

Smoking, chewing tobacco, excessive consumption of beverages such as tea, coffee, sugary drinks, and sodas all contribute towards stained teeth. Hence, one should quit smoking/chewing tobacco, and avoid excessive consumption of coffee, tea, sodas etc. for white teeth

Apart from the above home remedies you take several steps to ensure bright teeth. Eat foods such as carrots, apples, pears, celery, which can scrub away the stains on your teeth. Always rinse your mouth after consume food as it can wash away the stain-causing contents from your teeth. Ensure you brush twice every day and floss daily for healthy and white teeth.

Just about the only thing that is worse than having a toothache has to go to the dentist so that he can fix it! While you might try to ignore a toothache and hope it goes away you really need to have it checked out as most toothaches are due to tooth or jaw problems like dental cavity, cracked tooth, exposed tooth root, gum disease, jaw point diseases or spasm of the muscles used for chewing.

Garlic is the essential ingredient in one home remedy for toothache for temporary relief. One clove of garlic, combined with a pinch of rock salt, is to be applied to the afflicted tooth. As a result, pain is eventually relieved. As a “tip” towards a home remedy for toothache preventative, a single clove of garlic should be chewed each day, preferable in the morning, as it can aid in strengthening teeth, and maintaining overall dental health.

Remedies for teeth whitening


Divya Dant Manjan

helps in strengthens the gums, makes teeth healthy & shining and removing foul smell of the mouth.

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Think Of Cosmetic Dentistry As “Smile Design.”


A cosmetic dentist is one who has taken additional training in procedures which are designed to improve the smile of his or her patient. There are some cosmetic dentists who focus exclusively on these options but in many cases the cosmetic dentist is also the same individual you will see for routine dental care such as cleanings and fillings. Although New York cosmetic dentistry is a specialty in itself, the dentist who performs the work, no different than general or family dentists, are concerned with the patients overall oral health. If your teeth are not healthy cosmetic procedures will not have the same positive impact.


There are a number of procedures that can be performed by a cosmetic dentist; these procedures range from the most common which are teeth whitening and color matched fillings to veneers, crowns, dental implants and others. In most cases the cosmetic procedures are elective and are not a medical necessity but as they enhance the smile and reinforce the self-confidence of the patient many people consider itto be a very worthwhile undertaking.

Think of New York cosmetic dentistry as “smile design.” The dentist works closely with the patient, understanding what it is that he or she desires in the way of looks and feel. Although regular visits to the dentist and routine treatments are extremely important to overall dental health, the teeth will never look perfect if they are not healthy to begin with. Cosmetic treatments are more oriented toward the patient than the patient’s health. In the case of those dentists who offer both general dentistry and cosmetic dentistry, this can prove to be an ideal combination for the patient as the dentist is completely aware of the background and history.

The costs for cosmetic dental procedures vary depending on the procedure and the extent of the work as well as the locale of the dentist. A reasonably simple tooth whitening procedure can be accomplished in a single setting, it is even possible to purchase a whitening kit from the dentist and perform the procedure at home. If tooth whitening using gels or bleach does not give the desired results then the New York cosmetic dentist will most likely suggest that the teeth be fitted with porcelain veneers. Porcelain veneers not only whiten the teeth to whatever degree the patient wants, if there are small imperfections such as gaps between the teeth, edge chips or surface cracks, they too will be eliminated.

New York cosmetic dentistry includes bleaching, porcelain and composite veneers, Invisalign® aligners, crowns, bridges and more. You are invited to contact Dr. Sharam Shekib at New York Cosmetic Dentistry & Smile Makeovers to discuss how you can redesign your smile

Platelet Gel To Acceleration Of Tissue Regeneration And Healing

Submitted by: Piero Borzini

Platelet gel is made up by two moieties: a suspension of concentrated platelets and a gel-like material allowing the manipulation and the clinical application.

Platelets are cellular blood components participating in blood coagulation. Embedded into the clot, plaletets are releasing various kinds of molecules stimulating several biologic functions related to tissue repair and regeneration. Some of these molecules, generally named growth factors, stimulate the attraction into the lesion site of several kinds of cells: immune cells, tissue-regenerating stem or mature cells, cells regenerating the blood vessel-regenerating cells.

The gel-like material is a fibrin clot identical to that formed after a lesion or a wound has occurred.

The use of topical platelets medication started in the eighties following the principle that the same action exerted from platelets within a wound could be exerted carrying platelets in a lesion site without optimal blood inflow.

The group leaded by Knigton have published several reports of successful treatments with the autologous platelet-derived wound healing factors (platelet releasate, PDWHF). After that, reports have been published on the use of PRP-gel in oral surgery.

Since 1999 the platelet gel was used to enhance the repair and the regeneration of almost all tissue (skin, epithelia, muscle, tendon, bone, cartliage, etc) in a significant array of clinical conditions, both in humans and in veterinary medicine.

Platelet gel has been successfully used in many medical fields:


– Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (dental implants);

– Chronic and Acute Wounds (diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers);

– Orthopedics (fractures, non-union/bony defects, hip and knee replacement);

– General Surgery, Major Vascular Surgery, Cardio-thoracic Surgery, Urology (sternal repairs, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), aneurysms, splenectomy, gastrectomy, pancreatic surgery, liver resection, hernia repair, fistula, mastectomy, hepatic lobectomy, prostatectomy, nephrectomy);

– Ophthalmology and Eye Surgery (corneal ulcers, keratocongiuntivitis, cornea sicca, macular hole repair);

– Ear, Nose and Throat (rhinoplasty, cleft lip repair, skin graft fixation);

– Sports Medicine (tendinosis, tendinopathy, tendon & muscle injury);

– Plastic, Cosmetic and Reconstructive surgery (laser resurfacing, face, neck, brow lifts, blephroplasty, mammoplasty, abdominoplasty, non-healing wounds, fat transfers);

– Neurosurgery (CSF leak, dural repair, cranioplasty), and Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (bone, tendon, ligament injuries;

– Skin and mammary gland lesions in horses, canines, and other domestic animals).

Platelet gel preparation is almost always autologous; it is produced through use of the blood of the patient who will receive it. The patient s blood is centrifuged for platelets being separated from red cells and plasma.

Concentrated platelets in a small aliquot of plasma resulting from this process phase are clotted stimulating the physiologic coagulation process.

A platelet-embedding gel-like material is formed within few minutes. This platelet gel is used as a medication. Obviously, application protocols vary according to tissue and lesion to be cared for.

In some cases a single medication is performed (e.g., dental implant, bone fracture, surgery). In some other cases medication is to be performed once or twice a week (e.g., diabetic ulcer, chronic or traumatic wound).

According to the treated condition, efficacy of platelet gel is 80-99%. Besides enhanced regeneration, platelet gel has said antibacterial effect to several bacterial strains. Platelet gel is autologous and safe.

Its effectiveness is associated to reduced recovery time, shortened rehabilitation course, reduced lesion-related complications, reduced treatment-associated costs.

About the Author: Piero Borzini,

Platelet gel

expert. The


gel by Piero Borzini is the most cost effective activation kit to make gel.



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Understanding The Procedure For Dental Implants}

Understanding The Procedure For Dental Implants


Lalit Kumar Bansal

There are many instances where a person needs a new tooth to replace an old tooth lost due to some injury, disease or any other reason. This process of pacing an artificial tooth rod into ones jaw for the purpose of providing support to the new tooth which would be placed as a replacement or for making a bridge is called dental implant.

The process of dental implant requires the combined effort of the dentist and the periodontist. The implant will be placed in consultation with you. The decision of how and where the implant will be placed is taken by the dentist and the periodontist only after consulting with the patient. Each patient has certain specific conditions which have to be kept in mind while deciding on the treatment plan. Based on the type of implant chosen by the patient, the doctor and the periodontist will devise the treatment plan which shall be tailor made to suit a specific patients need only. The simplest and the easiest procedure is the replacement of a single tooth. One implant and a single crown will do the trick in cases where only one tooth is missing. A little complicated are the cases where several teeth have to be replaced. Implant supported bridges have to be build in order to replace many teeth. An extreme case, usually observed in old age patients is where the entire denture needs to be replaced. Full implant or full bridges need to be put in order to replace the entire set of teeth.


The quality and quantity of the bone in the area where the implant has to be done is a very important factor affecting the success of the implant. The bone quality and quantity is least around the upper back jaw. Implants in this area become even more complicated due to the fact it is very close to the sinus. However proximity to sinus can work to an advantage where due to sinus augmentation, the sinus floor rises and bone get developed which end up helping in the implant procedure. Another factor which makes the implant procedure difficult is the deformities in the upper and lower jaws. These deformities end up reducing the bone available for the implant. This problem can be solved by lifting the gum from the ridges and exposing the bony defect. The defect is then taken care of by either filling in with bone or by building up the ridge support through bone substitution. Ridge modification not only helps in improving the appearance of the individual but also increases the chances of the implant being successful. Implants done after ridge modification have been seen to last for quite a few years.

After the implant it is essential to take good care of your teeth. It is advised that one should ask their doctor or periodontist to prepare a good dental care plan post an implant. Implanted teeth are same as original teeth and hence in order to stay clean require daily brushing and flossing. Periodic follow up sessions with the dentist are also advised.

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dental ceramic crowns


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Understanding The Procedure For Dental Implants}